DNA double helix with dollar signs as a nucleotide.

The cost of scientific publishing

I’ve published a lot this year. More than normal, since I had 5 months with extra time and the knowledge that I would not be able to devote time to old projects if I began a tenure-track position. It’s been wonderful to publish so many projects, especially ones that had been languishing. But publishing fees can be steep, and often the grant is spent out by the time you publish, leaving researchers struggling to pay to get their results out. The more prestigious the journal, typically; the higher the cost. This encourages many authors to turn to lower impact or less reputable journals, which in turn causes colleagues to be suspicious of the article and may hurt their ability to get more grant money or promotion. On top of the base article processing charge (APC), there may be additional fees to print color photos, supplemental information, or to make the article open-access (readable without a journal subscription).

I’ve published 10 articles in 2019, only a fraction of what I contributed to paying for (thank you, collaborators!!). All costs are presented as 2019 fees in USD. Some journals charge less if you are a member of their society, or have financial assistance, but I’ve included the prices we paid.


Animal: $2835 APC flat rate (includes open-access)

Basic and Applied Ecology: $2000 APC for non-members (includes open-access)

Buildings: $1006 APC (always open-access)

Geoderma: $3350 APC for open-access and $2052.30 for printing 6 figures in color.

Indoor Air: $4300 APC for open-access

Journal of Animal Science: $1300 APC ($100/page member price x 10 pages + $500 color figure charge)

Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology: $3760 APC (includes open-access)

PeerJ: $1095 APC (always open-access). PeerJ also gives discounts for acting as a reviewer, though not applied here.

PLoS Biology: $0 APC for essays because they are published in the magazine (always open access)

PLoS ONE: $1595 APC (always open-access)

Total cost: $21,241


Keep in mind, I’m an editor for two journals and a reviewer for over a dozen, none of which I get paid for. Initial reviews take 2-4 hours, and follow up reviews on revised manuscripts can take 1-2 hours per revision (usually no more than 2 rounds). Editorial takes 1-2 hours per manuscript total, depending on the ease of finding reviewers and the completeness of those reviews. I estimate I’ve provided $3,240 (net) in editorial and review services this year alone.

Microbes and Social Equity essay published!

I’m pleased to announced that the ‘microbes and social equity’ paper has been published as an essay in PLoS Biology, and will be included in their Microbiomes Across Biological Systems special issue.

In summer 2019, I developed and taught a course on ‘Microbes and Social Equity‘ to the Clark Honors College at the University of Oregon. The course assignments were literature review essays on various topics, which were compiled into a single manuscript as the group-based final project for the course. This large version is available as a preprint; however, the published version is more focused.


Framing the discussion of microorganisms as a facet of social equity in human health.

Suzanne L. Ishaq1,2*, Maurisa Rapp2,3, Risa Byerly2,3, Loretta S. McClellan2, Maya R. O’Boyle2, Anika Nykanen2, Patrick J. Fuller2,4, Calvin Aas2, Jude M. Stone2, Sean Killpatrick2,4, Manami M. Uptegrove2, Alex Vischer2, Hannah Wolf2, Fiona Smallman2, Houston Eymann2,5, Simon Narode2, Ellee Stapleton6, Camille C. Cioffi7, Hannah Tavalire8

  1. Biology and the Built Environment Center,  University of Oregon
  2. Robert D. Clark Honors College, University of Oregon
  3. Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon
  4. Charles H. Lundquist College of Business, University of Oregon
  5. School of Journalism and Communication, University of Oregon
  6. Department of Landscape Architecture, University of Oregon
  7. Counseling Psychology and Human Services, College of Education, University of Oregon
  8. Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Oregon

Abstract

What do ‘microbes’ have to do with social equity? On the surface, very little. But these little organisms are integral to our health, the health of our natural environment, and even impact the ‘health’ of the environments we have built. Early life and the maturation of the immune system, our diet and lifestyle, and the quality of our surrounding environment can all impact our health. Similarly, the loss, gain, and retention of microorganisms ⁠— namely their flow from humans to the environment and back⁠ — can greatly impact our health and well-being. It is well-known that inequalities in access to perinatal care, healthy foods and fiber, a safe and clean home, and to the natural environment can create and arise from social inequality. Here, we focus on the argument that access to microorganisms as a facet of public health, and argue that health inequality may be compounded by inequitable microbial exposure.

Pilot study published on chemicals and bacteria in house dust.

In October 2017, Dr. Rich Corsi came to visit Oregon for two weeks during a sabbatical from the University of Texas, Austin. During his stay, Rich and I, and other BioBE/ESBL researchers chatted about doing a pilot study that would bring UT’s indoor chemistry work together with BioBE’s indoor microbial work.

Since we began our collaboration in the fall of 2017, only one of the research team is still in their original position (Jeff Kline at ESBL)! Rich Corsi, Ying Xu, and myself have all gone on to faculty positions elsewhere, graduate student Chenyang Bi defended and started a post-doc position, and the two undergrads working with me, Susie Nunez and Samantha Velazquez, graduated and went on to other things! Science collaborations work best when they can stand the test of time and geography. The benefit to everyone moving around is that you are able to hold collaboration meetings in new and exciting places each time.


In addition to the literature review we collaborated on, we eventually did get a research pilot running, and it has now been published in PeerJ!

Accumulation of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from polyvinyl chloride flooring into settled house dust and the effect on the bacterial community.

Samantha Velazquez1, Chenyang Bi 2,3, Jeff Kline 1,4, Susie Nunez1, Richard Corsi 3,5, Ying Xu 3,6, Suzanne L. Ishaq1,7*

Affiliations:

1 Biology and the Built Environment Center,  University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, 97403

2 Department of Civil Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (current)

3 Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712

4 Energy Studies and Buildings Laboratory, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, 97403

5 Fariborz Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207 (current)

6 Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, 100084, Beijing, P. R. China (current)

7 School of Food and Agriculture, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (current)

Abstract

Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used in consumer products and building materials, including polyvinyl chloride flooring material. DEHP adsorbs from material and leaches into soil, water, or dust, and presents an exposure risk to building occupants by inhalation, ingestion, or absorption.  A number of bacterial isolates are demonstrated to degrade DEHP in culture, but bacteria may be susceptible to it as well, thus this study examined the relation of DEHP to bacterial communities in dust.  Polyvinyl chloride flooring was seeded with homogenized house dust and incubated for up to 14 days, and bacterial communities in dust were identified at days 1, 7, and 14 using the V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene.  DEHP concentration in dust increased over time, as expected, and bacterial richness and Shannon diversity were negatively correlated with DEHP concentration.  Some sequence variants of Bacillus, Corynebacterium jeddahense, Streptococcus, and Peptoniphilus were relatively more abundant at low concentrations of DEHP, while some Sphingomonas, Chryseobacterium, and a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family were relatively more abundant at higher concentrations.  The built environment is known to host lower microbial diversity and biomass than natural environments, and DEHP or other chemicals indoors may contribute to this paucity.


A stack of papers facedown on a table.

10 publications in 2019!!!

2019 has been a hectic year for my career, but I managed to turn lemons into peer-reviewed lemonade. For the first half of the year, my primary focus was writing and submitting manuscripts on a backlog of work. And it’s paid off, I have had 10 things accepted for publication this year! I don’t expect to repeat this feat, this was the culmination of many projects over the last 5 years which matriculated all at once. But, it feels great to be able to do it once.

Research Articles

Ishaq, S.L., Page, C.M., Yeoman, C.J., Murphy, T.W., Van Emon, M.L., Stewart, W.C. 2019. Zinc amino acid supplementation alters yearling ram rumen bacterial communities but zinc sulfate supplementation does not. Journal of Animal Science 97(2):687–697. Article.

blog post and project page for the zinc paper.


Ishaq, S.L., Lachman, M.M., Wenner, B.A., Baeza, A., Butler, M., Gates, E., Olivo, S., Buono Geddes, J., Hatfield, P., Yeoman, C.J. 2019. Pelleted-hay alfalfa feed increases sheep wether weight gain and rumen bacterial richness over loose-hay alfalfa feed.  PLoS ONE 14(6): e0215797. Article.

blog post and project page for the ‘particle size’ paper.


Stenson, J., Ishaq, S.L., Laguerre, A., Loia, A., MacCrone, G., Mugabo, I., Northcutt, D., Riggio, M., Barbosa, A., Gall, E.T., Van Den Wymelenberg, K. 2019. Monitored Indoor Environmental Quality of a Mass Timber Office Building: A Case Study. Buildings 9:142. Article.

Blog post for the buildings paper.


Seipel, T., Ishaq, S.L., Menalled, F.D. 2019. Agroecosystem resilience is modified by management system via plant–soil feedbacks. Basic and Applied Ecology. In press. Article.


Ishaq, S.L., Seipel, T., Yeoman, C.J., Menalled, F.D. 2020. Soil bacterial communities of wheat vary across the growing season and among dryland farming systems. Geoderma 358(15):113989. Article.

Blog post on the soil microbes paper.


Velazquez, S., Bi, C., Kline, J., Nunez, S., Corsi, R., Xu, Y., Ishaq, S.L. 2019. Accumulation of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate from polyvinyl chloride flooring into settled house dust and the effect on the bacterial community. PeerJ. Accepted, anticipated out in early December

Reviews

Velazquez S., Griffiths W., Dietz L., Horve P., Nunez, S., Hu, J., Shen, J., Fretz, M., Bi, C., Xu, Y., Van Den Wymelenberg, K.G., Hartmann, E.M., Ishaq, S.L. 2019. From one species to another: A review on the interaction of chemistry and microbiology in relation to cleaning in the built environment. Indoor Air 26(6):875-1049. Impact 4.71. Article.


Garcia-Mazcorro, J.F., Ishaq, S.L., Rodriguez-Herrera, M.V., Garcia-Hernandez, C.A., Kawas, J.R., Nagaraja, T.G. 2019. Review: Are there indigenous Saccharomyces in the digestive tract of livestock animal species? Implications for health, nutrition and productivity traits. Animal: 1-9. Article.

Blog post for the yeast paper.


Horve, P.F., Lloyd, S., Mhuireach, G.A., Dietz, L., Fretz, M., MacCroneG., Van Den Wymelenberg, K., Ishaq, S.L. Building Upon Current Knowledge of Indoor Microbiology to Construct the Next Era of Research into Microorganisms, Health, and the Built Environment. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology.  Article.

Essays

Ishaq, S.L., Rapp, M., Byerly, R., McClellan, L.S., O’Boyle, M.R., Nykanen, A., Fuller, P.J., Aas, C., Stone, J.M., Killpatrick, S., Uptegrove, M.M., Vischer, A., Wolf, H., Smallman, F., Eymann, H., Narode, S., Stapleton, E., Cioffi, C.C., Tavalire, H.. 2019. Framing the discussion of microorganisms as a facet of social equity in human health. PLoS Biology, Microbiomes Across Systems special issue. Accepted, will be released Nov. 26, 2019 at 2 pm EST

Blog post for the social equity paper.

Application open for the Microbial Friends & Foes Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Summer Program at Cornell.

Poster describing The Cornell Institute of Host-Microbe Interactions and Disease (CIHMID) program for Microbial Friends and Foes Summer Program.

“The Cornell Institute of Host-Microbe Interactions and Disease (CIHMID) is accepting applications for the NSF-funded Microbial Friends & Foes Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Summer Program (bit.ly/REU-CIHMID).  Applications are due February 1, 2020.

The Microbial Friends & Foes Program will take place from June 8 to August 14, 2020.  The program will provide training in the concepts and experimental approaches central to understanding microbial interactions with eukaryotic hosts.  Students will learn about broad diversity of microbe-eukaryote interactions through conducting independent research projects, participation in weekly research group meetings, seminars presented by CIHMID faculty, Microbial Friends & Foes Synthesis Panels, CIHMID Summer Symposium, and Microbial Friends & Foes Poster Session. Emphasis will be placed on appreciation of the scientific method and developing effective strategies for conducting research as well as on the synthesis of concepts important to interspecific interactions across diverse systems.  In addition, workshops in electronic database literacy, science citation software, research ethics, science communication, and planning for graduate study will be offered to the Microbial Friends & Foes program participants. Students will receive a stipend of $6000, travel subsidy, meal allowance and on-campus housing.  Applicants will be asked to identify 3 laboratories of interest, and will be selected in a two-step review process by the program organizers and potential mentors. A flyer describing the program is attached and more information can be found at bit.ly/REU-CIHMID.

WHO SHOULD APPLY

*All undergraduate students interested in understanding microbial interactions with eukaryotic hosts.

*Members of minorities underrepresented in science, undergraduates from small colleges, and first-generation college students.

*Applicants must be United Stated citizens or permanent residents and at least 18 years old.”

Paper published on effect of farming systems on soil bacteria!

After several years of bouncing through internal and external review, I’m pleased to announce that the first microbes paper out of the Montana State University Fort Ellis project has been published in Geoderma! The Fort Ellis research has encompassed multiple labs, projects, and many personnel, as it was a large collaboration looking at the effect of different farming systems on biodiversity at the macro (plant), mini (insect), and micro (-be) levels. Spanning multiple years, this project has been a massive undertaking that I briefly participated in but anticipate getting four publications out of (two more are in preparation).

Winter wheat

I previously presented this work at the 2017 Ecological Society of America (ESA) conference (poster: Ishaq et al ESA 2017 poster). And this field soil was the “soil probiotic” that was used in the follow-up greenhouse trial that I ran which was also published this year.


Soil bacterial communities of wheat vary across the growing season and among dryland farming systems.

Ishaq, S.L., Seipel, T., Yeoman, C.J., Menalled, F.D. 2020. Geoderma 358:113989.

Abstract

Despite knowledge that management practices, seasonality, and plant phenology impact soil microbiota; farming system effects on soil microbiota are not often evaluated across the growing season.  We assessed the bacterial diversity in soil around wheat roots through the spring and summer of 2016 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivium L.) in Montana, USA, from three contrasting farming systems: a chemically-managed no-tillage system, and two USDA-certified organic systems in their fourth year, one including tillage and one where sheep grazing partially offsets tillage frequency. Bacterial richness (range 605 – 1174 OTUs) and evenness (range 0.80 – 0.92) peaked in early June and dropped by late July (range 92 – 1190, 0.62-0.92, respectively), but was not different by farming systems.  Organic tilled plots contained more putative nitrogen-fixing bacterial genera than the other two systems.  Bacterial community similarities were significantly altered by sampling date, minimum and maximum temperature at sampling, bacterial abundance at date of sampling, total weed richness, and coverage of Taraxacum officinale, Lamium ampleuxicaule, and Thlaspi arvense.  This study highlights that weed diversity, season, and farming management system all influence soil microbial communities. Local environmental conditions will strongly condition any practical applications aimed at improving soil diversity, especially in semi-arid regions where abiotic stress and seasonal variability in temperature and water availability drive primary production. Thus, it is critical to incorporate or address seasonality in soil sampling for microbial diversity.

‘Microbes and Social Equity’ essay accepted for publication!

Over the summer, I taught a class on “Microbes and Social Equity” at the University of Oregon, the culmination of which was a joint paper I wrote with the class and several of the guest speakers. After soliciting several journals and modifying the scope a bit, I’ve just heard back that it has passed peer-review and been accepted for publication as an essay in PLoS Biology!

I’ll be sure to send out the link and more information when it’s online.

Microbiomes at The Wildlife Society meeting

I gave my second talk in two days in as many conferences today, this time presenting on “Moose rumen microbes and their relevance to agriculture and health.” at the American Fisheries Society + The Wildlife Society (AFS+TWS) meeting in Reno, Nevada. You can find the slides with presentation notes: tws_2019_sue_ishaq_moose

I was invited to present in a session on the “Utility of Microbiomes for Population Management”, which presented research from scientists working on clams, fish, frogs, salamanders, koalas, and moose all focused on understanding the microbiome in order better understand wildlife. I had a great time talking wildlife microbes with this group!

The microbiomes speaker group at TWS 2019.

Unfortunately, I won’t be staying longer in Reno, either. In a few hours I’m heading to Bozeman, Montana, to meet with collaborators and teach bioinformatics to a grad student.

Ciencia y aventura en mexico

For the past four days, I have been in Monterrey, Mexico, where I have been fostering international scientific relations in meetings and in the mountains.  It was my very first trip to Mexico, and it was an amazing experience.

After arriving in Monterrey, I was greeted by a research friend of mine, Dr. Jose Garcia-Mazcorro.  We met a few years ago when Jose emailed me to ask questions about a recently published paper on Saccharomyces probiotic treatment in cattle, and our conversations on the ecological theory behind probiotics led to a review paper on the subject, led by Jose and I. It wasn’t until last August when Jose and I actually met in person, at the ISME conference in Leipzig, Germany.

At dinner, I had the opportunity to meet Jose’s wife, Alecia, who is also a researcher, and their son, and discuss everything from aflatoxin to Stephen King’s “It” (we discovered that their son and I were both reading It when I discussed living in Maine, not far from Derry).

The next day, I woke up at 3:45 am to travel to the mountains for an incredible experience: a small-group tour in Matacanes canyon led by Daniel, a mountaineer with 20 years of experience and owner of Todo Avetura. He and Omar, another guide, led us for 12 hours and taught us about Matacanes canyon while we trekked 13 kilometers (8.7 miles) down waterfalls, through caves, over boulders, and over cliffs. Even the drive into and out of the canyon was an adventure; the steep road into the mountains fords rivers and winds along cliff faces.  In the canyon, I got to do many things for the first time, including rappel down the side of two waterfalls; 27 m (88.6 ft) and 15 m (49.2 ft) into a cave, swim through the absolute dark of a river cave system, and jump off of several cliffs into the water below, including a 9.5 meter (31 ft) jump!  It was supposed to be 10 meters, but that looked just a little too terrifying to try so I chose a spot that looked friendlier.  Turns out that jumping 9.5 meters is a lot like getting up to present in front of a large audience, you just have to get up there and do it before you have time to think about and psych yourself out.

The guides were really passionate about the mountains, and they were particular about safety and not rushing or pushing us to the point where we would get hurt.  If you have the chance, and the cohones, to go to Matacanes, I highly recommend Todo Aventura.

On Monday, sore but no worse for wear, I gingerly toured some of the facilities where Jose is currently working, MNA, an animal nutrition company.  I met with company president and nutritionist Dr. Jorge Kawas, and Jose, Jorge, and I discussed the role of microbes in animal nutrition and health. 

Dr. Jose Garcia-Mazcorro and I at MNA in Monterrey.

Monday night, I got to chat one-on-one with Professor T.J. Nagaraja, an author on the Saccharomyces review and a prominent researcher in rumen acidosis, cattle health, and infectious disease. 

The main reason for my trip to Monterrey was to attend and speak at the XXII UANL-Engorda de Bovinos en Corral Symposium.  I presented the opening seminar titled “Raising feedlot cattle with good microbes in mind” (“Cria y engorda de ganado con buenos microbios en mente”).  The video can be found here, and slides with presentation notes here:

Organized by MNA and UANL, the university in Monterrey, the symposium brings together researchers, producers, animal industry professionals, and students to discuss animal health in feedlot cattle.  I was honored to give the opening talk, which will be available online soon, and pleased to hear that the audience did in fact like microbes more than before my seminar!  Usually when I start talking about the gut microbiome people have the urge to run off and wash their hands…

Unfortunately, I had to jump back on a plane shortly after my talk, as I am heading to give a different presentation at the Wildlife Society meeting in Reno, Nevada tomorrow! But, I have plenty of memories and new project ideas to remember my trip by, and hopefully I will come back to Monterrey soon!

Academic commute

To date, I’ve driven just over 7,000 miles to work at academic postings in 4 states. It’s not uncommon to travel long distances to match with the right academic program or job posting, in fact, it can be critical to help you acquire new skills. Almost every researcher I know has made at least one move, and many have traveled transcontinentally or internationally. This highlights the need for moving assistance (without which I could not have afforded to move to a job) as well as immigration policy which is not based on intimidation or discrimination.

For my part, I have effectively moved laterally across North America twice, going nearly coast to coast to coast. Beginning with my bachelor’s and doctorate at the University of Vermont, I moved to Burlington back in 2003 and stayed for 12 years, long enough to catch the travel bug. With my defense impending, I accepted a position at Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana, a drive of roughly 2,600 miles, and lived there for two years with my now-husband, Lee, acquiring a dog in the process.

We drove 2,600 miles to Montana!

While the move to Montana was motivated by my interest in the work and in living out west, my move to the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon just two years later was a bit more tinged with financial necessity: in early 2017, it seemed unlikely that my work into the effect of climate change on soil microbes in agricultural fields would continue to be funded by the federal government. Although, they have since funded a project I’m collaborating on, but it took nearly a year to confirm there was actually federal funding available, long after I had left Bozeman.

The actual move from Bozeman to Eugene was a comedy of errors; it was extremely difficult to find affordable housing in Eugene which would allow a dog > 35 lbs, was configured to support our lifestyle, and was located reasonably close to campus (I ended up biking 12 miles a day round trip). By the time we confirmed an apartment just 5 day before our move (which required significant time and financial investment to secure), the larger moving trailers were no longer available and Lee and I ended up each driving a 16 ft truck (mine without air conditioning) for two extremely long days and about 860 miles.

My first day at the University of Oregon.

While we weren’t planning on being done with the west coast so soon, after just two years in Oregon, financial need was spurring a move yet again. In February of 2019, I was notified that there was no longer financial support for my research faculty position and that my contract was being terminated at the end of the month. This, too, is not uncommon in academia. Unless you are academic faculty, chances are that you are soft-money funded, and your salary and the majority of your benefits are paid through grant funding. There is usually a clause in your appointment letter or university policy regarding the minimum amount of time required between notification and termination, but sometimes it can be same day!

Through a combination of research money I had brought in, ad hoc summer teaching, and industry project money, I was able to knit together five months worth of half-time salary. I spent those five months working more than full-time in an effort to look for a new job (a time-intensive effort in academia) and push as many old projects to publication as possible. If I was going to have down time, at least I would use it efficiently to improve my prospects of getting a new job, and ensure that my obligations were met in case it was necessary to take a non-academic job to make ends meet and I no longer had much time for research in my spare time.

While financial need might have put me on the job market, pure serendipity connected me to the University of Maine: an old friend forwarded me the job posting, which I had missed despite all my internet-scouring. The position, the university, and the location were all perfect for me and my family, an alignment which is somewhat rare in academia.

Over 9 days, we drove roughly 3,600 miles on the scenic route along the Transcontinental Highway spanning Canada. We took ferries to an from Victoria Island, walked a beach near Vancouver, drove through the impressive Canadian Glacier National Park to Banff, cruised through grass seas in the Canadian wheat belt, dipped our paws in the Great Lakes region, and drove through the forests and undulating hills of Quebec and western Maine. We are spending the week acclimating on the Maine coast with family, after which we will formally move to Orono with no plans to move back out.

Despite all the mileage that Lee and I have accrued, Izzy has traveled farther! We adopted her in Bozeman, but she was born in a different part of Montana and had moved to Wisconsin and back before she was 2 years old, accruing an estimated 7,100 miles.

Izzy has lived in 4 states and traveled more than 7,100 mi to get there.